Matteotti, Giacomo

(1885–1924)
   A socialist martyr, Giacomo Matteotti’s murder by the Fascists led to the definitive end of liberal Italy and the advent of Benito Mussolini’s dictatorship. Matteotti was born in Rovigo, near Venice, the son of a lower middleclass family. He studied law and seemed embarked on a career as a jurist, but his socialist sympathies led him toward political activism and journalism. He opposed World War I but was nevertheless called up and served in the army for three years. In 1919, he was elected to Parliament as a deputy for the Partito Socialista Italiano/Italian Socialist Party (PSI). Matteotti belonged to the reformist wing of the PSI, however, and in 1922 he joined Filippo Turati in forming the Partito Socialista Unitaria/United Socialist Party (PSU), becoming its secretary and chief organizer.
   In 1923, Matteotti published a searing condemnation of Fascism’s intellectual and economic pretensions, Un anno di dominazione fascista (A Year of Fascist Domination), and, in May 1924, he made a historic speech in the Chamber of Deputies denouncing the electoral frauds and acts of intimidation that had falsified the 1924 elections throughout Italy. On 10 June, five Fascist squadristi kidnapped him as he walked along the banks of the Tiber in Rome. His body was found two months later.
   Matteotti’s murder provoked the liberal and democratic opposition to walk out of Parliament on 13 June, and the widespread disgust with the violence and illegality of the Fascist militias might have brought Mussolini down. In the end, however, the delitto Matteotti (the Matteotti crime) served to consolidate Mussolini’s power. After Mussolini was directly accused (December 1924) of having ordered Matteotti’s murder, he accepted political responsibility for the killing in a bold speech in January 1925. This was a prelude to the widespread closings of “subversive” publications and organizations, indiscriminate arrests of critics, and the abolition of competitive elections. Together, these measures—given the proven illegalities of the action squads—ended all remnants of liberal democracy in Italy.
   See also Aventine Secession.

Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. . 2007.

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  • Matteotti, Giacomo — born May 22, 1885, Fratta Polesine, Italy died June 10, 1924, Rome Italian Socialist leader. A lawyer, he joined the Italian Socialist Party and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919. As head of the Socialists in 1924, he strongly… …   Universalium

  • Matteotti, Giacomo — (22 may. 1885, Fratta Polesine, Italia–10 jun. 1924, Roma). Líder socialista italiano. Abogado, se unió al Partido Socialista Italiano y fue elegido diputado en 1919. Como líder de los socialistas en 1924, denunció fuertemente al Partido Fascista …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Giacomo Matteotti — (  It Giacomo Matteotti.ogg ( …   Wikipedia

  • Matteotti — Giacomo Matteotti (* 22. Mai 1885 in Fratta Polesine; † 10. Juni 1924 nahe Rom) war ein italienischer Politiker und Generalsekretär der Partito Socialista Unitario (PSU). Die Ermordung Matteottis durch italienische Faschisten im Jahr 1924 gilt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • MATTEOTTI (G.) — MATTEOTTI GIACOMO (1885 1924) Issu d’une famille de propriétaires fonciers aisés, Giacomo Matteotti fait des études de droit et milite, très jeune, au Parti socialiste italien. Interné pour pacifisme pendant la Première Guerre mondiale, il est… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Giacomo — (as used in expressions) Domenico di Giacomo di Pace Giacomo Della Chiesa Carissimi Giacomo Casanova Giovanni Giacomo Francesco di Marco di Giacomo Raibolini Leopardi Giacomo Manzù Giacomo Giacomo Manzoni Matteotti Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo… …   Universalium

  • Giacomo — (as used in expressions) Domenico di Giacomo di Pace Giacomo Della Chiesa Carissimi, Giacomo Casanova, Giovanni Giacomo Francesco di Marco di Giacomo Raibolini Leopardi, Giacomo Manzù, Giacomo Giacomo Manzini Matteotti, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Giacomo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Giacomo Matteotti — Matteotti am Anfang seiner politischen Karriere Giacomo Matteotti (* 22. Mai 1885 in Fratta Polesine; † 10. Juni 1924 nahe Rom) war ein italienischer Politiker und Generalsekretär des Partito Socialista Unitario (PSU). Die Ermordung Matteottis… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Matteotti — es un apellido italiano. Es el apellido de: Giacomo Matteotti político y antifascista italiano. Giancarlo Matteotti político italiano, hijo de Giacomo Matteotti. Gianmatteo Matteotti periodista y político italiano, hijo de Giacomo Matteotti.… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Giacomo Matteotti — (Fratta Polesine, provincia de Rovigo, 22 de mayo de 1885 – Roma, 11 de junio de 1924) fue un político socialista italiano. Nacido en una familia adinerada, Matteotti se licenció en Derecho en la Universidad de Bolonia, donde entró en contacto… …   Wikipedia Español

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